- 178.2 g/mol
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
Compound properties list
|Melting/boiling point|| 216 °C||Solid|
|Relative density||1.25 g/cm3||Sinks in water|
|Vapour pressure||1 x 10 -5 mm Hg||Very low volatility|
|Vapour density||6.15||Denser than air|
|Solubility in water||0.03 mg/L||Very low solubility|
|Henry's law constant||5 x 10-5 atm·m3/mol||Moderate volatilization when dissolved|
|log Koc (Depending on soil or sediment characteristics)||4.8 - 6.8*||Very strong adsorption to organic matter|
At 20 0C, anthracene is a solid with very low volatility. Characterized by its very low
solubility, it will volatilize moderately once dissolved and adsorbs very strongly to organic
matter. When present in soil, this compound will volatilize and solubilize very slowly. Once
dissolved, it will either enter the groundwater table or migrate towards a waterway, where it will
be diluted before partially volatilizing. Fragments of anthracene can also be carried into a
waterway where they will deposit at the bottom and will very slowly dissolve. Once the source has
been removed, the adsorbed anthracene will take a very long time to disappear, liberating
contamination in either the gaseous or dissolved state. The resulting plumes (gaseous or dissolved)
will be relatively small in size.
Anthracene should be handled with care as it is toxic.
Anthracene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). PAHs are a group of organic
compounds that contain two or more benzene rings in their structure. There are more than 100
different PAHs that generally occur as complex mixtures (example, combustion by-products such as soot).
Incomplete combustion of fuels in engines, during coal coking, or when wood is burning (forest
fires, wood stoves) produces PAHs. PAHs are also constituents of petroleum and coal, and they are
more present in some of their derivatives like tars and asphalt. The wood preservative industry
(example, creosote), aluminum smelters using Soderberg electrodes, and hazardous waste disposal sites
are further contributors of anthropogenic PAHs to the environment.
Anthracene is obtained from coal tar. It is used in the production of anthraquinone, the parent
compound for a large class of dyes and pigments. Anthracene is also used in the manufacture of
synthetic fibers, insecticides and coating materials, in calico printing, as a diluent for wood
preservatives, as scintillation counter crystals and in organic semiconductor research. Anthracene
is also used in biochemical or cancer research. Anthracene is also likely to be found mixed with
other PAHs in commercial products like coal tar, coal tar pitch, creosote, bitumen and asphalt. Coal
tar is used as a fuel in the steel industry, distilled to give coal tar pitch and creosote, and has
been used in the clinical treatment of skin disorders such as eczema and dermatitis. Coal tar pitch
is used primarily as a binder for aluminum smelting electrodes, but is also used in roofing, surface
coatings and a variety of other applications. Creosote is used to preserve wood for railroad ties,
marine pilings and telephone poles. Some creosote products are also used as a fuel by steel
production. Bitumen and asphalt are used for paving roads, for sound- and water-proofing, and
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1995. Toxicological
Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services, Public Health Service, Georgia, USA.
(Viewed December 2013)
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. 1999. Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for
the Protection of Aquatic Life: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). In: Canadian
Environmental Quality Guidelines. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Manitoba,
Canada. (Viewed December 2013).
Montgomery, John H. 2007. Groundwater Chemicals, Desk Reference, Fourth Edition, CRC
Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Florida, USA.
National Toxicology Program. 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition: Substance Profile of
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health
Services, USA.(PDF, 256KB) (Viewed December 2013)